T-90 Battle Tank

Main battle tank T-90 was developed in the early 90-ties by Uralvagonzavod plant design bureau (leading designer V.Potkin). It was published as a main Russian army tank till the year 2005. Since 1997 it's export modification T-90S has been offered in the world's military markets.

The T-90 construction embodies the best main battle tank T-72B and T-80U design solutions and the best layout and structural features. From T-72B it got reliable and well recommended chassis, from T-80U - turret with armament and fire control systems. A number of constructional decisions were made using modern combat experience and reorientation to Russian complement.

It has classic arrangement, with rear placed engine and transmission. Tanks crew consists from commander, gunner and driver-mechanic.

Driver is placed in hull's front part under his hatch in separate driving compartment. He is fitted with wide view optical system. Tank's commander and gunner are placed in rotating armored turret, in combat compartment. Commander is placed right from main gun and gunner - left.

T-90 armor is made from filled multi-layer combined armor, with built-in dynamic defense "Kontakt-5", which consists from eight sections in upper hull's frontal armor and three anti-cumulation screens from each side. Low silhouette turret has built-in seven blocks and one container. 20 more containers are placed on the turret roof. Last mentioned provide protection from helicopters, attack aircrafts and perspective anti-tank missiles, defeating tank threw it's turret's roof.

Additional defense is provided by TShU-2 "Shtora" optical-electronical  countermeasure complex. This complex decreases anti-tank guided missile, with half automatic guiding system, hit probability in 70 - 75% and makes strays for laser guided systems and laser based rangefinders. Complex consists from optical-electronical suppression station TShU-1 and aerosol screen making device. Last mentioned consist from two modules (infrared flashlights) placed in turret's frontal part and making coded infrared signals, preventing correct missiles guidance.

Aerosol system registers irradiance by laser sight, designates irradiation source location, chooses on from 12 smoke grenade launcher placed from both turret sides, makes electric signal proportional to angle needed to turn turret with grenade launchers, and fires aerosol grenade on 55 m distance. This measure provides protection from laser guided anti-tank missiles.

As much as aerosol screen devices are used from 902B "Tuchia" smoke grenade launchers, it makes available to use smoke grenades ZD6 covering tank from visual and infrared notifying. Smoke screens can be also set with thermo smoke device, generating smoke from fuel.

Main armament is 2A46M, 125-mm mm smoothbore gun. It is fitted with two plane stabilizer 2Je42-4 and automatic reloading mechanism. To increase fire accuracy and prevent overheating barrel is fitted with dismantling 4-section thermal sleeve. Ammunition load is similar to T-80U and contains armor-piercing, cumulative and high explosive-fragmentation projectiles.

Furthermore there was developed high explosion-fragmentation projectile with electric remote detonator. Ammunition load also contains 9K119M "Refleks" complex (Nato codename AT-11 "Sniper") anti-tank guided missiles. Missile flying range is 4 000 m what allows T-90 to defeat the biggest part of enemy tanks and helicopters without entering their reach ability limit.

The T-90 tank has modernized fire control complex 1A45 which contains fire control system 1A42, guided missile complex 9K119, commanders observation complex PNK-4S, guiders laser sight-rangefinder 1G46 and tank's thermo vision complex TO1-PO2T. Necessary target pointing data is provided by ballistic computer 1B528-1 with input information sensors. Overall fire control system allows to defeat targets at day-night conditions by artillery fire in movement and guided missiles - from short stops.

T-90 addition armament consists from 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun PKT and 12.7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun NSVT, placed in anti-aircraft closed type device with fire control system 1C29, stabilized in vertical plane. This system allows commander to fire with closed hatch. T-90 engine is well built and recommended V-84MS two stroke, six cylinder, multi-fuel diesel with 840 h.p. power.

T-90's chassis is constructional similar to T-72B chassis. Suspension consists from six large rubber-laid bearing rolls, directing and tracking spider and supporting rolls from each side. First, second and sixth bearing rolls are fitted with absorbers. From the sides tracks and suspension are covered with anti-cumulative screens.

Speed and maneuverability characteristics are the same as T-72B. Main battle tank's T-90 export modification T-90S is fitted with increased power multi-fuel 1 000 h.p. diesel engine with gas turbine injection. Tank is fitted with air conditioning system for work in high temperature zones. T-90 hull's frontal part is fitted with retraceable device and mine trawl KMT-6 connection hardpoints.


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